# JSON Web Tokens (JWT)

# JWT 101

JSON Web Tokens are described in the RFC7519.

JSON Web Token (JWT) is a compact, URL-safe means of representing claims to be transferred between two parties. The claims in a JWT are encoded as a JSON object that is used as the payload of a JSON Web Signature (JWS) structure or as the plaintext of a JSON Web Encryption (JWE) structure, enabling the claims to be digitally signed or integrity protected with a Message Authentication Code (MAC) and/or encrypted.

Guardian is dealing with signed JWT commonly called JWS.

JWS are particularly suitable when we want to transfer unencrypted but cryptographically unalterable data. For example, it can be a user id that we want to authenticate. Since the data are unalterable, when the user come back with JWT, we can simply verify the token signature.

The JWS consists of three distinct parts.

Name Description
Header Metadata about the JWS, such as the used algorithm.
Payload The actual piece of information held by the token.
Signature Unique string generated from a secret key that ensures the integrity of the payload.

# Examples

# User authentication

Consider an application where the users are identified by their ids. The user table might look like this:

id username password (hashed)
1 mathieu $tr0gha$h
2 valentin 1lov€k8s
3 dimitri 1mor$ay$

If you want to use the JWTs, you will probably want to put the user id into the token payload, which allows you to simply check to token integrity and get the user id.

JWT payloads are key-value piece of data called claims. The standard claims are described in the RFC7519, Section 4.1.

In this example, we will put the user id inside the sub claim, as recommended by the RFC7519, Section 4.1.2:

# 4.1.2. "sub" (Subject) Claim

The "sub" (subject) claim identifies the principal that is the subject of the JWT.

This an example of an unserialized JWT:

  "alg": "HS256",
  "typ": "JWT"

# Payload

  "sub": "1"

# Signature, using the key guardian


The signature, using the application JWT key, ensures that the sub claim cannot be modified by an attacker. The token can now be serialized using the following algorithm:

base64url(header) || "." || base64url(payload) || "." || signature

where header and payload are the JSON representations string of the header and the payload, and || the concatenation operator.

Serializing the previous token gives the following result:


You can check the validity of this token on the jwt.io's debugger.